I’m a fairly active angel investor. I’ve certainly done enough investing to have seen a broad range of investment paperwork and the preferences of most of the top lawyers used by startups in the country. Generally, the docs are mostly boilerplate. Legally mandated cover-your-ass type stuff. So, rather than wade through reams of paper for each investment, I have key terms that I look for and pretty much ignore the rest. Almost everyone’s intentions are good and all parties involved want all to benefit from the success of the company or to participate equally in its failure. Rarely does someone want an unfair advantage in a deal. Well, mostly.
In about a third of the deals I do these days, I run across the dreaded Major Investor clause. It goes something like this:
“Major Investor” means any Investor that, individually or together with such Investor’s Affiliates, holds at least X shares of Registrable Securities (as adjusted for any stock split, stock dividend, combination, or other recapitalization or reclassification effected after the date hereof).
Big deal, you say, that’s just a definition. True, but why define a Major Investor at all? Because later in the document (usually in the Investor’s Rights Agreement), certain rights and privileges are reserved solely for the Major Investors.
Who are these people? Generally speaking, they are a lead investor in the deal. A single large investor, a family office, a VC, an angel fund or some other investment group. Oh, by the way. Did I mention that the X in the definition above is generally set higher than the level that individual investors are coming into the deal at, leaving the lead investor as the only Major Investor. But, I bet you guessed that already.
What are the rights they reserve for themselves?
- Information rights
- Inspection Rights
- Preemptive Rights (also known as Right of First Offer or Right of First Refusal)
Information rights grant investors the right to receive, at some pre-determined interval, information about the company’s status and finances. Limiting information rights to just the lead investor is just silly. The idea is that it saves the management team time, not having to report to too many people. Why this takes more time than reporting to one party, I have no idea. In practice, it’s just another cc: on the distribution list of the status email.
Some VCs voice a concern that granting such rights to all investors will create a dialog of follow-on questions and comments that will consume too much of management’s time. In my experience, there is almost never much of this going on unless it’s encouraged by the CEO. Often, the angel investors, having mostly run companies themselves, can offer up their situational wisdom when they know what’s going on. This advice is frequently more valuable than the money that was invested.
Inspection rights, which grant investors access to the company’s books, facility and personnel from time to time, is more difficult. I actual agree with limiting inspection rights. This can create a huge time sink for the company and get out of hand when a deal has many investors.
So, Preemptive rights are a protective provision that give early investors the right (not the requirement) to invest more in the company in order to maintain their level of ownership, avoiding dilution. All early investors should have this right, which should be explicitly granted in the investment documents. By keeping this right for themselves, Major Investors are virtually guaranteeing that the angel investors in the round will be screwed in the subsequent rounds of investment if things are going well.
You might ask if this happens in practice. I can assure you that it does. I have fallen victim to this more than once, although not in a while. I know many angel investors who have gotten caught in this trap because they didn’t understand or didn’t take a hard look at the paperwork before making an investment. Recently, I was in a situation where I had to fight to maintain my ownership in a follow-on round even though I had Preemptive rights. The VC investing in the new round demanded of management that all the angels who had previously invested give up their protective right. Several of the angels refused and the deal went through anyway. If there was no prescribed right, you can imagine how it would have gone down.
If you’ve gotten this far, you probably understand my point of view concerning the Major Investor clause. It’s changed my process of discussing an investment with a startup and reviewing the documentation for the investment. My first move is to search for the term “Major Investor.” If it’s found, I check on the rights granted (implicitly precluding the angels in the deal). I don’t really care about Inspection rights and I think that limiting Information rights is stupid, but that won’t prevent me from doing the deal. Preemptive rights is a much bigger deal. I’m simply not interested in making an investment in a company that doesn’t offer me a Preemptive right in return for the risk I’m taking as an early investor. I don’t always invest my pro rata share in subsequent rounds, but I’m not willing to give up my right to do it.